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How to Convert MB/s to IOPS

Most SSDs have two speed ratings for reading as well as for writing.  The first rating is the sustained MB/s performance, which is the main marketing most manufacturers use.  The second rating is the 4K Random IOPS performance, which gives a much better idea of how the drive will perform in the real world.  The sustained MB/s rating is the sequential transfer rate the SSD will maintain continuously, such as over a period of 30 seconds.  The 4K Random IOPS on the other hand is how many 4K (4096 byte) operations the drive will handle per second with each block being read or written to a rando

Using openssl to convert CA certificates to different types

PEM Format

The PEM format is the most common format that Certificate Authorities issue certificates in. PEM certificates usually have extentions such as .pem, .crt, .cer, and .key. They are Base64 encoded ASCII files and contain "-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----" and "-----END CERTIFICATE-----" statements. Server certificates, intermediate certificates, and private keys can all be put into the PEM format.

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